Morton's neuroma is an inflammation of the nerves in the foot that go to the toes. Although the name includes the word ?neuroma,? it is not really a tumor. It can affect any of the toes in the foot. However, it most often affects the nerves that run between the third and fourth, or second and third toes.
The exact cause of Morton?s neuroma is not known, but the choice of footwear seems be a factor. Wearing high heels (shoes with heels over 2 inches) can put extra pressure on the balls of the feet. Wearing tight or pointed toed shoes may squeeze the toes together or otherwise constrict their movement. For that reason, women are about 8 to 10 times more likely to develop Morton?s neuroma compared with men. People who are born with flat feet, high arches, or an abnormal position of the toes are more prone to developing Morton?s neuroma. This may be due to instability around the toe joints. Certain conditions that develop over time, such as bunions or hammer toes, are also associated with Morton?s neuroma. Some sports that involve running, including tennis and other racquet sports, can also increase the chance of developing Morton?s neuroma due to trauma or injury to the foot.
Patients with neuroma may develop pain on the bottom of the forefoot, most commonly under the 3rd and 4th toes, though any toe may be affected. The pain may be dull and mild or severe and sharp. The toes may feel ?numb? as times, especially the area between the 3rd and 4th toes. A classic complaint is that patients feel as if they are ?walking on a stone or pebble? and/or ?feel as if the sock is rolled up in the shoe.? Pain is often worse when walking barefoot.
The doctor will perform an examination of your feet as well. He or she may palpate your feet and flex them in specific ways that will indicate the presence of a neuroma. X-rays are often used to rule out other problems, such as fractures, bone spurs, arthritis or other problems with the bones in the toes or foot. In some cases, an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) may be helpful to confirm the presence of a neuroma.
Non Surgical Treatment
Depending on your overall health, symptoms and severity of the neuroma, the condition may be treated conservatively and/or with surgery. Non-surgical methods for neuroma are aimed at decreasing and/or eliminating symptoms (pain). Wear proper supportive shoes. Use an arch support. Wear shoes with a wide toe box. Modify your activities. Lose weight. Wear shoes with cushion. Prescribe an oral anti-inflammatory medication. Anti-inflammatory medication is useful to significantly reduce pain and inflammation. A physical therapist may perform ultrasound and other techniques to reduce inflammation. You will also be instructed how to stretch your foot and leg properly. Padding and/or cushioning of the ball of the foot is an effective method of preventing physical irritation with shoes. A custom foot orthotic is a doctor prescribed arch support that is made directly from a casting (mold) of your feet, and theoretically should provide superior support compared to shoe insert that you would purchase from a pharmacy. A cortisone injection is a powerful anti-inflammatory medication that is used to rapidly reduce the pain associated with an inflamed nerve. The pain relief that you may experience from the injection(s) is often temporary. Typically injection(s) are administered once every 2 months for a total of 3 injections or until the pain is resolved. A sclerosing alcohol injection is placed around the involved nerve to weaken its capacity to report pain. In other words, the alcohol injection will ?deaden? the affected nerve. The pain relief that you may experience from the injection(s) can be permanent. Typically injection(s) are administered once every week for a few weeks until the pain is resolved.
The above measures are often sufficient to resolve Morton?s Neuroma. Should the condition persist or worsen despite these efforts, surgery may be recommended to remove the Neuroma. The surgery requires only a short recovery period, though permanent numbness in the affected toes can result, so such surgery is generally used as a last resort.
Wearing proper footwear that minimizes compression of the forefoot can help to prevent the development of and aggravation of a Morton's neuroma.